Once again Ishmael draws a contrast between the dark-skinned harpooners,
a far more barbaric, heathenish, and motley set than any of the tame merchant-ship companies which my previous experiences had made me acquainted with,
and the three White sea-officers,
every one of them Americans; a Nantucketer, a Vinyarder, a Cape man.
Race is on Melville’s mind. No doubt about it. But where he stood on the issue, how he felt about slavery, that’s the question that critics can’t decide on. Because the novel is not simplistic. It’s not a pro- or con-anything kind of book. It’s not a politician, or a manifesto, or a vehicle for any particular ideology, but rather a complex portrait of a complex, violent society of violent injustices.
At last, also, we meet Ahab, who emerges on deck for longer and longer periods the further south the ship sails. Ishmael compares the Captain’s “whole high, broad form” to a Cellini bronze statue of Perseus.
The myth of Perseus,son of Danaë, whom Zeus impregnated as a shower of gold, is worth considering here, for it is deeply bound up with the sea, with brutality, murder, and money. Again and again, beginning in his infancy, Perseus is exposed to terrible dangers that should but don’t kill him.
Here is the story that Robert Graves assembled from various ancient sources, which suspiciously blame women for starting all the trouble:
Danaë’s father, Acrisius, having heard that his grandson would kill him, locked Danaë and the infant Perseus into a wooden ark, which he cast into the sea. It washed to Seriphos, where a fisherman, Dictys, nets it and takes it ashore. The King of that place, Polydectes, adopts Perseus and tries to marry his mother, who resists him. Polydectes tries to trick Perseus by sending him after the Gorgon Medusa’s head, which he ostensibly wishes to present to another princess as a marriage gift.
Athene helps Perseus because she hates Medusa, originally a beautiful woman who led the Libyans of Lake Tritonis in battle. Somehow she offended Athene, who transformed her into a hideous creature with venom-dripping snakes for hair and a face so ugly that she turns all who look upon her to stone. Hermes also helps Perseus to kill Medusa by teaching him how to obtain winged sandals and a helmut that renders its wearer invisible.
On his way back to save his mother from Polydectes, Perseus falls in love with Andromeda, the Ethiopian princess chained to a cliff to be devoured by a female sea-monster. Andromeda’s mother, Cassiopeia, had boasted that her daughter was more beautiful than the Nereids, and Poseidon responded by insisting that she be sacrificed to the beast. Perseus slays the beast and wants to marry Andromeda, but her parents attack him with a force of 200. Perseus turns them all to stone with the Medusa’s head and returns home with the marriage-gift and discovers his adoptive father threatening his mother, Danaë, and the fisherman Dictys. He rescues them, turns Polydectes and his aggressors to stone, and then gives the kingdom to Dictys. Then he sails with his mother and Andromeda to Argos, where he accidentally kills his grandfather with a discus.
Perseus is a tragic hero who, like Ahab, kills female monsters and sails oceans. He murders the King who wishes to marry his mother, his wife’s parents, and his only grandfather, along with hundreds of others who oppose him. The gods help him to commit these deeds for arbitrary reasons of their own.
The author of an on-line guide to reading Moby Dick observes that Melville alludes again to Perseus, whom he calls the first whaleman. He leaves out Medusa’s head altogether and suggests that the monster the demigod slays to save Andromeda is a Leviathan. Ahab’s skin is bronzed from his time at sea and his singular, mad pursuit has made him hard.
What strikes me when I look at Cellini’s statue is the prone, sensuous body of the Medusa under Perseus’s feet and the beautiful visage on the head he holds up. I’m wondering if Melville, whether consciously or not, imagined Ahab as a dominating man, whose patriarchal power derives from his ability to conquer the dangerously sensuous feminine elements in the world?