Chapter 9: Jonah and the Fugitive Slave Law
The sermon really is very good. Father Mapple’s marvelous interpretation of the Biblical story about Jonah and the Whale is both an allegory and a confession. Although I am currently doubting my original suggestion that this book as an epic novel, there are loads of epic elements in this chapter. There is the lofty language; the Satanic hero, and this wonderful simile.
Like one who after a night of drunken revelry hies to his bed, still reeling, but with conscience yet pricking him,
as the plungings of the Roman race-horse but so much the more strike his steel tags into him;
as one who in that miserable plight still turns and turns in giddy anquish, praying God for annihilation until the fit be passed; and at last amid the whirl of woe he feels, a deep stupor steels over him,
as over the man who bleeds to death, for conscience is the wound, and there’s naught to staunch it;
so, after sore wrestling in his berth, Jonah’s prodigy of ponderous misery drags him drowning down to sleep.
I broke it apart so that you can identify the parallel elements. Jonah is intoxicated, supersaturated with a painful, nearly fatal fit of guilt. But for what? Doesn’t it bother you that we never find out what crime Jonah committed?
Father Mapple says he disobeyed God, but how he did it he never tells. He describes Jonah as a ‘God-fugitive,” theoretically someone who runs from the inevitable wrath of the Deity. But why is this god mad? What has Jonah done? Something so terrible that can be forgiven only once he goes to the very bottom of the ocean in the belly of a fearful beast! Here, beyond the jaws of death, in darkness and squalor, he finds peace. And why does he feel peace? Because he has been punished! For what? For running away?
What a strange religion! Here is a sadistic god who punishes people who refuse to acknowledge his authority, and who favors those whom he scourges. And his victims thank him for whipping them.
But think a little futher about Jonah, the fugitive. Father Mapple describes him thus:
O! most contemptible and worthy of all scorn; with slouched hat and guilty eye, skulking from his God; prowling among the shipping like a vile burglar hastening to cross the seas. So disordered, self-condemning is his look, that had there been policemen in those days, Jonah, on the mere suspicion of something wrong, had been arrested ere he touched a deck. How plainly he’s a fugitive! no baggage, not a hat-box, valise, or carpet-bag, —no friends accompany him to the wharf with their adieux…in vain essays his wretched smile. Strong intuitions of the man assure the mariners he can be no innocent.
As allegory, the story that Mapple delivers corresponds to the story about slavery that Melville is telling in his novel. Did it not occur to you that Jonah figures as a slave or a freed Black man running not from God, but, rather, his master? Did it not occur to you to understand the sermon as a kind of allegory that White ministers used to preach to justify the Fugitive Slave Law? I’m sure I’m not the first to assert this. Surely whole dissertations have been composed to demonstrate this very point; articles advancing the same claim have made careers.
Not convinced? Consider the way Melville describes Jonah’s last desperate moment when he is tossed by the sailors into the sea, and the storm follows him:
“He goes down in the whirling heat of such a masterless commotion that he scarce heeds the moment…”
Jonah’s crime is what, again? We are not told. I will tell you. Jonah’s crime is that he is “masterless.” He will not obey his master and he has run away.
This is not to argue that we should read the novel as an allegory. In Moby Dick Melville creates a “historical allegory.” It makes reference to its time, its political and historical reality, but not through verisimilitude, as in the European novel of the same period, or in a point-to-point fashion, like a roman-a-clef. A historical allegory, like science fiction, comments on the present in a story that seems to be about something else. So here, we have a historical allegory with epic elements in which the fictional story comments on the political, social, spiritual, and economic realm in which it was composed: a politically complex, industrial capitalist, Christian society in which dark-skinned men, women and children were bought and sold for profit and light-skinned men and women were generating arguments for White Supremacy.
As Michael Rogin astutely observes, Moby Dick is more than a political allegory, because it remains,
“paradoxically, above politics, neither losing itself in political complexity nor transforming its political present into something new. Allegories take positions inside a given structure of controversy. Those who see Moby Dick as a political allegory choose one side or another in the political debates; Moby Dick undercuts it all. It points to no fixed political truth above and outside its own story.”