Chapter 10: The Puritan God is a Usurer and Queeqeg does not owe him.
Well, it’s obvious that Ishmael, whose name means fugitive, has not been converted by Father Mapple’s sermon. He finds yet more reasons to admire Queequeg, who worships a different god and who, unlike the melodramatic and miserable Father Mapple, displays no guilt or shame or self-hatred.
“He looked like a man who had never cringed and never had a creditor.”
This is my favorite line in the book.
You have to know something about Puritans to really get the joke here, and it is a joke. Of course, Melville, like Hawthorne, was a 19th-century American Puritan. His ancestors were Puritans and his typology, his religious classification of the world and world-view, was Puritan.
Ishmael, like earlier Christians, frequently compared God to a creditor and themselves to debtors. They believed they had to repay the loan of life not only in full, but with interest. It was not enough to live your life; you had to demonstrate through action or outstanding faith that you were really, really grateful for what you had received, but most of all you had to show that you recognized that you yourself were worthless because anything of value that showed itself in you or that you brought about in the world came not from you but rather from God, the Father.
Right. I’m talking about the old White man who runs the bank and has a right to everything you ever thought you owned or had a right to. Queequeg lives outside this viewpoint and therefore does not suffer the constant doubt and worry that he will be unable to pay what he owes. He is free in a way that Ishmael is not.
Melville takes the joke further, of course, by having Ishmael demonstrate that he is a good Christian by turning “idolator” and worshipping alongside his new friend. “That done, we undressed and went to bed.” There Ishmael and Queequeg have a loving chat like “man and wife” and experience a “honeymoon” as a “cosy, loving pair.” Melville was a rascal, wasn’t he? Can’t you just imagine how this passage would affect those radical Christians who terrorize people who insist on loving people of the same sex?
Melville is so timely. The same nasty-minded, racist, xenophobic religious wackos who imposed the Fugitive Slave Act (which, remember, gave every White person the power to clap any suspicious-looking Black person into irons and torment them) in his time are still alive and kicking among us today, nearly 200 years later.